The phenomenon of the magnet through a copper tube experiment is known as Lenz’s law. Metal subsidiaries have inflows of the continuous flow of magnetic field where the resistance of the magnetic field is being created. The magnet creates a revolving electron while it moved inside the pipe and that reduces the power of resistance of the magnet to a greater extent. These processes create current which is popularly known as Eddy current. It was known since 1834.
Lenz first discovers it:
He found some interesting phenomenon when there was the interaction between a magnet and copper. Copper is not magnetic and when copper pipes have interacted with magnets some strange resistance shows out there. When is copper not magnetic then how can copper pipes interact with the magnet at all?
Let us move to this experiment to see in life how such a strange phenomenon is happening. Some materials need to be assembled for this experiment. Copper pipes of different diameter, bowl, steel bulbs, and the small magnet.
Then, let the magnetic touch different materials which you have assembled so that you confirm that these are not magnetic. Sure to collect a strong magnet. It is expected to collect three or four copper pipes for this experiment preferably of different sizes and dimensions. Now, I collect some steel bulbs preferably of bearing balls of the motorcycle and place one bowl at the end of the copper pipes.
First, I hold the smallest diameter sized copper tube and then ask the volunteer to come with a stopwatch, so that, when the steel ball is dropped into at the front opening of the pipe the time is recorded still it moved into the pipe and then fall at the bottom of the bowl through the end hole of the copper pipe.
The stopwatch is to be stopped when the ball hit the bowl by crossing through the pipe. The time of the ball of movement of a steel ball through that pipe needs to be recorded. This process should continue for three to four times so that at one point the accurate time of travel could be known. It should be recorded. As we know, Galileo has proved that every object of the earth falls from the sky in the similar movement and acceleration.
This time we use the slightly wider copper and then drop the steel ball into it and measure the time of travel and then use the slightly wider copper pipe and use it and we should record all of these five pipes and the time or duration of steel balls travel into it. It is important to do this for more than two to three times for each pipe to reach towards an absolute conclusion of it.
Now, you record all of these timings and put it down on the sheet of paper. Next brings out the magnet. You must have the magnet which has the diameter lesser than the open area of all of these copper pipes so that magnet can travel through it easily without any obstruction. Due to the presence of the law of gravity, it is expected also that magnet should travel these distances on the similar times as that of steel ball which we see earlier.
It is also expected that the movement of this magnet into copper pipes shall take lesser time that steel bulbs as earth is a big magnet and everything that comes with same speed towards it due to presence of gravitational powers shall also be different with smaller magnets as these can be attracted with greater more speed due to the presence of big magnet in the crust of earth’s surface.
Now, the experiment begins. As usual, the copper pipe is to be situated at the straight level and the bow at the below of it and a volunteer with stopwatch shall record the time of the movement of the magnet into the copper pipe from its opening towards the end still it reaches the bowl on the below of copper pipe. Before dropping the magnet inside copper pipes, the volunteer with stopwatch must be ready to watch and find out the moving time of the magnet within copper pipes.
You must be surprised to find out the end result. The timing of the reaching of the magnet into the bowl by moving into copper pipes is far greater than the timing of the steel ball and that is the most surprising and fascinating aspect of understanding the movement and timing. In reality, as per the theory of gravitational power, the magnet must move in speedier than the steel balls but why it happens exactly the opposite.
You can do this experiment with other pipes and look for the timing and compare this with the steel ball falling in time to know that magnet took far higher timing that the steel ball.
To your utter surprise you can find that even the diameter of copper file becomes wider, the timing of the same steel ball moving into it and reaching at the end of it stays exactly the same whereas the timing of the copper ball in the first copper pipe takes four times of the steel ball timing and subsequently with the increase of diameter of copper pipes the timings of the magnet to reach to the surface into copper pipes becomes higher and in the last copper pipe which is most wider than other three, the timing of the magnet to reach to the surface into copper pipe take almost more than half a minute.
This goes on to show that the even if the magnet is not so restrictive to Earth’s magnetic but it does behave exactly opposite when it goes through the non-magnetic copper pipes. To add it more, when the diameter of copper pipes goes on increasing, the movement time of the magnet from the top to bottom increases accordingly.
In the end the timing taken by steel balls does not depend upon the non magnetic surface of copper pipes not it is so much affected by the increase of diameter of copper pipes as the result shows that the timing in each of the session with steel balls and with different diametrical copper pipes remain same as it is.
The reason behind this surprising result:
Why such reverse trend there with the magnet when it moves through a non-magnetic substance like that of copper pipes? The magnetic field is nothing but the results of the electric current.
A magnet when moves into the non-magnetic field or the non-magnetic substance like that of copper pipes here, it creates an electric field which is opposite to the electric field of the earth’s magnet. So, the resistance comes from both the opposite magnetic field just created inside the copper pipe by the magnet and the earth’s magnetic field.
Metals do not like magnetic fields or current so it creates the resistance with the falling magnet out there. This resistance slows down the movement of the magnet.
This phenomenon is bitterly known as Lenz’s law. Due to the slowdown of the progress of the magnet it does creates lesser electric field as the metal wants it to be due to its non magnetic nature, in the mean time the gravitational power of earth which is as the result of the presence of big magnet inside the crust of earth’s surface continues to attract the magnet and then the speed rises and subsequently the speed slows down due to regeneration of electricity inside copper wires still the magnet reaches to its normal speed when it drops to the bowl which is at the outside of the copper pipe.
The whirlpool of energies in terms of electricity comes about due to the rapid resistance of metal pipes to defuse the power of magnet and then while it is diffused for some time it again revived due to the pressure of gravitational power causing the whirlpool of energies inside copper pipes.