Introduction to computers

•The Macintosh started the era of art on the PC in 1984. With its mouse and GUI, the Mac quickly became popular with designers.

•With the release of Windows, PCs caught up with the Mac in terms of graphics capabilities. Designers routinely use PCs and Macs together.

•Because of their power and cost, workstations are used only for the most demanding graphics applications.

Features of the Internet

•The World Wide Web

•E-Mail

•News

•Telnet

•File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

•Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

The World Wide Web

•The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet,which supports hypertext documents, alowing users to view and navigate diferent types of data.

•A Web page is a document encoded with hypertext markup language (HTML) tags.

•HTML alows designers to link content together via hyperlinks.

•Every Web page has anaddress, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

E-Mail

•Electronic mail (e-mail) is the most popular reason people use the Internet.

•To create, send, and receive e-mail mesages, you need an e-mail program and an account on an Internet mail server with a domain name.

•To use e-mail, a user must have an e-mail address, which you create by adding your user name to the e-mail server’s domain name.

News

•One Internet-based service, caled news, includes tens of thousands of newsgroups.

•Each newsgroup hosts discussions on a specific topic. A newsgroup’s name indicates its users’ special topic of interest, such as alt.food.cake.

•To participate in a newsgroup, youneeda newsreader program that lets you read articles that have been posted on a news server. You can post articles for others to read and respond to.

Telnet

•Telnet is a specialized service that lets you use one computer to acces the contents of another computer –a Telnet host.

•A Telnet program creates a “window” into the host so you can access files, issue commands, and exchange data.

•Telnet is widely used by libraries, to alow visitors to look up information, find articles, and so on.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

•File transfer protocol (FTP) is the Internet tool used to copy files from one computer to another.

•Using a special FTP program or a Web browser, you can log into an FTP host computer over the Internet and copy files onto your computer.

•FTP is handy for finding and copying software files, articles, and other types of data. Universities and software companies use FTP servers to provide visitors with access to data.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

•Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service that alows users to communicate in real time by typing text in a special window.

•Like news, there are hundreds of IRC “channels,” each devoted to a subject or user group.

•You can use a special IRC program to participate in chatroom discusions, but many chatrooms are set up in Web sites, enabling visitors to chat directly in their browser window.

Geting Images into Your Computer

Graphics programs let you start an image from scratch, but designers often use existing images, which they load from various sources.

The four most common sources of digital images are:

•Scanners

•Digital cameras

•Clip art

•Electronic photographs
How the Internet Works

•TCP/IP

•Routing Trafic Across the Internet

•Addressing Schemes

•Domains and Subdomains

TCP/IP

•Every computer and network onthe Internet uses the same protocols (rules and procedures) to control timing and data format.

•The protocol used by the Internet is the Transmision Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP.

•No mater what type of computer system you connect to the Internet, if it uses TCP/IP, it can exchange data with any other type of computer.

Routing Traffic Across the Internet

•Most computers don’t connect directly to the Internet. Instead, they connect to a smaler network that is connected to the Internet backbone.

•The Internet includes thousands of host computers (servers), which provide data and services as requested by client systems.

•When you use the Internet, your PC (a client) requests data from a host system. The request and data are broken into packets and travel across multiple networks before being reassembled at their destination.

Addressing Schemes

•In order to communicate acros the Internet, a
computer must have a unique addres.

•Every computer on the Internet has a unique
numeric identifier, caled anInternet Protocol (IP)
addres.

•Each IP addres has four parts – each part a number
between 0 and 255. An IP address might look like
this: 205.46.117.104.

Domains and Subdomains

• In addition to an IP address, most Internet hosts or servers have a Domain Name System (DNS) addres, which uses words.

• A domain name identifies the type of institution that owns the computer. An Internet server owned by IBM might have the domain name ibm.com.

• Some enterprises have multiple servers, and identify them with subdomains.

_______________________________
Internet

The Internet: Then and Now

•The Internet was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the U.S. Department of Defense for scientific and military communications.

•The Internet is a network of interconnected networks. Even if part of its infrastructure was destroyed, data could flow through the remaining networks.

•The Internet uses high-speed data lines, caled backbones, to carry data. Smaler networks connect to the backbone, enabling any user on any network to
exchange data with any other user.

How the Internet Works

•TCP/IP

•Routing Trafic Across the Internet

•Addressing Schemes

•Domains and Subdomains

TCP/IP

•Every computer and network onthe Internet uses the same protocols (rules and procedures) to control timing and data format.

•The protocol used by the Internet is the Transmision Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP.

•No mater what type of computer system you connect to the Internet, if it uses TCP/IP, it can exchange data with any other type of computer.

Routing Traffic Across the Internet

•Most computers don’t connect directly to the Internet. Instead, they connect to a smaler network that is connected to the Internet backbone.

•The Internet includes thousands of host computers (servers), which provide data and services as requested by client systems.

•When you use the Internet, your PC (a client) requests data from a host system. The request and data are broken into packets and travel across multiple networks before being reassembled at their destination.

Addressing Schemes

•In order to communicate acros the Internet, a
computer must have a unique addres.

•Every computer on the Internet has a unique
numeric identifier, caled anInternet Protocol (IP)
addres.

•Each IP addres has four parts – each part a number
between 0 and 255. An IP address might look like
this: 205.46.117.104.

Domains and Subdomains

• In addition to an IP address, most Internet hosts or servers have a Domain Name System (DNS) addres, which uses words.

• A domain name identifies the type of institution that owns the computer. An Internet server owned by IBM might have the domain name ibm.com.

• Some enterprises have multiple servers, and identify them with subdomains.

Features of the Internet

•The World Wide Web

•E-Mail

•News

•Telnet

•File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

•Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

The World Wide Web

•The World Wide Web is a part of the Internet,which supports hypertext documents, alowing users to view and navigate diferent types of data.

•A Web page is a document encoded with hypertext markup language (HTML) tags.

•HTML alows designers to link content together via hyperlinks.

•Every Web page has anaddress, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

E-Mail

•Electronic mail (e-mail) is the most popular reason people use the Internet.

•To create, send, and receive e-mail mesages, you need an e-mail program and an account on an Internet mail server with a domain name.

•To use e-mail, a user must have an e-mail address, which you create by adding your user name to the e-mail server’s domain name.

News

•One Internet-based service, caled news, includes tens of thousands of newsgroups.

•Each newsgroup hosts discussions on a specific topic. A newsgroup’s name indicates its users’ special topic of interest, such as alt.food.cake.

•To participate in a newsgroup, youneeda newsreader program that lets you read articles that have been posted on a news server. You can post articles for others to read and respond to.

Telnet

•Telnet is a specialized service that lets you use one computer to acces the contents of another computer –a Telnet host.

•A Telnet program creates a “window” into the host so you can access files, issue commands, and exchange data.

•Telnet is widely used by libraries, to alow visitors to look up information, find articles, and so on.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

•File transfer protocol (FTP) is the Internet tool used to copy files from one computer to another.

•Using a special FTP program or a Web browser, you can log into an FTP host computer over the Internet and copy files onto your computer.

•FTP is handy for finding and copying software files, articles, and other types of data. Universities and software companies use FTP servers to provide visitors with access to data.

Internet Relay Chat (IRC)

•Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service that alows users to communicate in real time by typing text in a special window.

•Like news, there are hundreds of IRC “channels,” each devoted to a subject or user group.

•You can use a special IRC program to participate in chatroom discusions, but many chatrooms are set up in Web sites, enabling visitors to chat directly in their browser window.

Online Services

• An onlineservice is a company that provides acces to e-mail, discussion groups, databases on various subjects, and the Internet.

• America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy are examples of popular online services.

Internet-Related Features in Application Programs

•Popular application programs, such as word processors and spreadsheets, feature Internet-related capabilities.

•Using these special features, you may be able to create content for publication on the Internet or view content directly from the Internet.

Internet-Related Features in Application Programs

•Popular application programs, such as word processors and spreadsheets, feature Internet-related capabilities.

•Using these special features, you may be able to create content for publication on the Internet or view content directly from the Internet.

Online Services

• An onlineservice is a company that provides acces to e-mail, discussion groups, databases on various subjects, and the Internet.

• America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy are examples of popular online services.

_________________________________________________________________The Internet: Then and Now

•The Internet was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the U.S. Department of Defense for scientific and military communications.

•The Internet is a network of interconnected networks. Even if part of its infrastructure was destroyed, data could flow through the remaining networks.

•The Internet uses high-speed data lines, caled backbones, to carry data. Smaler networks connect to the backbone, enabling any user on any network to
exchange data with any other user.

____________________________________________________________________________Types of Graphics Files

Graphics files can be saved in many diferent ways, but fal into two basic groups:

•Bitmaps

•Vectors

Because graphics programs support so many diferent file formats, compatibility becomes an important issue for designers.

– Bitmaps

•A bitmap is a grid whose cels are filed with a color. If you zoom into a bitmap-based line on the computer’s screen, you can see the cels (pixels) that compriseit.

•Bitmaps are sometimes caledraster images or bitmapped images.

•Bitmap software lets you control each pixel in an image. This software keeps track of al the pixels in an image, which may number in the milions.

– Vectors

• A vector is a set of mathematical equations that describe the characteristics of a line or shape.

• A vector-based program does not see a graphical entity as a set of pixels. Instead, the program sees the entity as a set of start and end points, with thicknes, color, and other atributes.


File Formats and Compatibility Issues

•A file format is a standardized method of encoding
data for storage.

•There are many diferent file formats for graphics.
Some programs recognize more formats than others
do.

•Some programs cannot use certain file formats. These
files are said to be incompatible with the program.

–Standard File Formats

• To solve incompatibility problems, designers can save bitmap files in one of several standard formats, which can be used in many programs.

• The most commonly used bitmap file formats are BMP, PICT, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, and PNG.

• Most vector programs use their own proprietary file format, but may recognize standard vector formats such as DXF and IGES.

Working with ImagesGraphic Software

Computer Platforms Used for Graphics

•The Macintosh started the era of art on the PC in 1984. With its mouse and GUI, the Mac quickly became popular with designers.

•With the release of Windows, PCs caught up with the Mac in terms of graphics capabilities. Designers routinely use PCs and Macs together.

•Because of their power and cost, workstations are used only for the most demanding graphics applications.

Types of Graphics Files

Graphics files can be saved in many diferent ways, but fal into two basic groups:

•Bitmaps

•Vectors

Because graphics programs support so many diferent file formats, compatibility becomes an important issue for designers.

– Bitmaps

•A bitmap is a grid whose cels are filed with a color. If you zoom into a bitmap-based line on the computer’s screen, you can see the cels (pixels) that compriseit.

•Bitmaps are sometimes caledraster images or bitmapped images.

•Bitmap software lets you control each pixel in an image. This software keeps track of al the pixels in an image, which may number in the milions.

– Vectors

• A vector is a set of mathematical equations that describe the characteristics of a line or shape.

• A vector-based program does not see a graphical entity as a set of pixels. Instead, the program sees the entity as a set of start and end points, with thicknes, color, and other atributes.


File Formats and Compatibility Issues

•A file format is a standardized method of encoding
data for storage.

•There are many diferent file formats for graphics.
Some programs recognize more formats than others
do.

•Some programs cannot use certain file formats. These
files are said to be incompatible with the program.

 

–Standard File Formats

• To solve incompatibility problems, designers can save bitmap files in one of several standard formats, which can be used in many programs.

• The most commonly used bitmap file formats are BMP, PICT, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, and PNG.

• Most vector programs use their own proprietary file format, but may recognize standard vector formats such as DXF and IGES.

Geting Images into Your Computer

Graphics programs let you start an image from scratch, but designers often use existing images, which they load from various sources.

The four most common sources of digital images are:

•Scanners

•Digital cameras

•Clip art

•Electronic photographs

Copyright Issues

• Copyright is an important concern if a designer wants to reuse art created by someone else.

• Copyright laws govern the way images can be reused and distributed and thus protect the rights of the images’ owners.

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