CPUS USED IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS

CPUS USED IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS

• Intel Processors

• AMD Processors

• Cyrix Procesors

• Motorola Processors

• RISC Processors

INTEL PROCESSORS

•Since 1978, Intel’s processors have evolved from the
8086 and the 8088 to the 80286, 80386, and 80486, to
the Pentium family of procesors. Al are part of the
80×86 line.

•Intel’s Pentium family of procesors includes the
Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium with MMX, Pentium
II, Pentium II, Pentium IV, Celeron, and Xeon
procesors.

•The earliest Intel procesors included only a few
thousand transistors. Today’s Pentium procesors
include 9.5 milion transistors or more.

•Intel knows that big numbers are impressive so they
have focused on developing faster procesors as
opposed to beter processors. Intel’s processors
perform wel in streaming multimedia type
applications, but they do not perform quite as wel in
ofice or productivity type applications.

•Under the Intel name there are 2 main consumer
lines: the Pentium, and the Celeron. The major
diference between these two is the fact that the
Celeron’s contain less internal cache. Internal cache is like temporarystorage within the procesor itself, it
gives the processor a shorter time between command
executions.

AMD PROCESSORS

• Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) was long known as a
provider of lower-performance procesors for use in
low-cost computers.

AMD performs beter for productivity or ofice based
applications like word procesing, web browsing, and
email. AMDs are also typicaly cheaper than Intels.

• With its K6 line of procesors, AMD chalenged Intel’s
procesors in terms of both price and performance.

• With the K6-III processor, AMD broke the 600 MHz
barrier, claiming the “fastest processor” title for the
first time in IBM-compatible computers.

CYRIX PROCESSORS

• Cyrix began as a specialtychip maker, but eventualy
began producing microprocessors.

• Cyrix processors are most commonly used in low-
price, low-end consumer PCs.

• Cyrix formerly produced the MediaGX processor, and
nowproduces the MII series of processors.

MOTOROLA PROCESSORS

• Motorola makes the CPUs used in Macintosh and
PowerPC computers.

• Macintosh procesors use a diferent basic structural
design (architecture) than IBM-compatible PC
procesors.

• With the release of the G3 and G4PowerPC processors,
Macintosh computers set new standards for price and
performance.

MOTOROLA PROCESSORS

• Motorola makes the CPUs used in Macintosh and
PowerPC computers.

• Macintosh procesors use a diferent basic structural
design (architecture) than IBM-compatible PC
procesors.

• With the release of the G3 and G4PowerPC processors,
Macintosh computers set new standards for price and
performance.

CISC AND RISC PROCESSORS

•Every CPU has the built-in ability to execute a
particular set of machine instructions, caled its
instruction set.

•Most CPU have 200 or more instructions (such as
add, subtract and compare) in their instruction set.

•CPU made by diferent manufacturer have diferent
instruction sets.

•When new CPU is developed it is ensured that its
instruction set includes al the instructions in the
instruction set of its predecessor CPU, plus some new
ones : upward compatibility

•MostPCsare based on complexinstructionset computing
(CISC)chips which containlargeinstructionsets.

•CSIC procesorsareCPUwith largeinstructionsets, variable-
lengthinstructionsand varietyofaddresing modes.

•Reducedinstructionsetcomputing(RISC)procesors use
smalerinstructionsets. Thisenables them to proces more
instructionspersecond than(CISC) chips.

•RISC procesorare CPUs with asmal instruction sets,fixed
lengthinstructions.

•RISC procesorsarefound in Apple’sPowerPC systems,as wel
as many H/PCs, workstations, minicomputers,and mainframes.

•EPIC Procesors (Explicitly ParalelInstruction Computing)
technology is fast emerging as the technologyforthenext
generationprocesors.HP andIntel havealready adopted itin
defining their 64-bit ISA knownas IA-64

PARALEL PROCESSING

•In paralel processing, multiple procesors are used in a
single system, enabling them to share procesing tasks.

•In a massively paralel processor (MPP) system, many
procesors are used.

•Some MPP systems utilize thousands of processors
simultaneously.

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